The Souhrada Family Website
Czech Radio České Budějovice (http://www.rozhlas.cz/cb/koreny)
Broadcast Title: Záhoří by Písek
Broadcast Date: 14/15-July-2008
To listen to (download) the podcast and hear this program in the Czech language >> click here.
[Reference Note: Mr. Vojtech Souhrada who has roots from Horni Zahori provided a translation to English, from the original Czech broadcast. The following is the translation from "Koreny" Roots in radio Ceske Budejovice, Budweiser with additional edits by Karen E. Souhrada]
FČ: We shall visit the region of Písek with our edition of Roots today. If you follow the main road between Tábor and Písek, about 6 km from Písek, you will come across the village of Záhoří. Our attention there will be upon the newly restored church. The village centre itself is situated in the *Cadastral territory (see end notes] of Horní (Upper) Záhoří. Through time the town has grown in size and now the town itself can be divided between Horní Záhoří and Dolní (Lower) Záhoří. Situated in Horní (Upper) Záhoří we have the church and cemetery, whereas the village centre and the local pub is in Dolní (Lower) Záhoří. This village also covers four sub-villages (settlements), that of: Jamný, Kašina Hora, Svatonice andTřešně. As a whole, all are situated in the wedge of landscape between the rivers of Vltava and Otava.
AS: The names of Dolní and Horní Záhoří are still in force, even if both of these Záhoří make almost one village as far as the developmental history is concerned. In the past, only two farms were in Horní Záhoří (the Sýkoras and the Bohatýs), and the church of St. Michael the Archangel. On the basis of the written note of 1307, the landlords court used to exist in Záhoří. In that year as well, the village was given, as a part of the Zvíkovian Dominion, to Jindřich of Rožmberk by King Henry of Korutans. The local pastorship became Utraquistic* [see end notes] in the 15th century. Some names of the Utraquistic priests are known, for instance Jan Krejzar of Chrášťany or in 1618 Jan Flaxius of Čenkov, who was also the Dean of Písek. The local pastorship was vacated after the Utraquistic priests were expelled following the battle of Bílá Hora, and in 1640 only the Dominican priest of Písek was named there. Should anyone’s ancestors have lived during the time of this pastorship, the register records of the pastorship begin with the year 1657.
FČ: You have mentioned that Záhoří was made a part of the Zvíkov estate lands. What other developments affected Záhoří ?
AS: Financial troubles brought Oldřich of Rožmberk to pawn the tax payments of Záhoří to Mikuláš of Lobkowitz, the landlord of Hluboká. Rožmberk later reserved the village of Záhoří to again belong to Zvíkov after what happened in the year 1454. In 1472 A. D. the fortress of Zvíkov was handed over to Bohuslav of Švamberk, along with with Záhoří. The Švamberks governed in Zvíkov for a further 150 years, and then the important year of 1612 came. In that year, Jiří Ehrenreich of Švamberk sold the Dominion of Zvíkov to his uncle Jan Jiří Švamberk for 70,000 scores of groshes (coins). He reserved that the villages between the Vltava and Otava rivers remain in his posession, and become a part of Červený Újezdec estate property. These villages in 1857 made up the mayorate of Újezdec. Located there is the medieval fortress in Červený Újezdec, where the Švamberks have had their main domicile from 1662, until now. The estate Červený Újezdec was afterwards in the posession of his son Jan Vilém towards Kestřany, and after him, held by his daughter Maxmiliána Eleonova, who married Kufštejn. This lady sold it in 1662 to the princess of Eggenberg. Since then, this estate has shared the good and bad with the Dominion of Orlík. It was therefore, in the hands of Eggenbergs first, and by 1719 it came into the ownership of the Schwarzenergs.
FČ: So, the genealogist should also consult the archives of the Orlík Dominion, shouldn´t he?
AS: Yes, that´s right, the archive of Orlík has been deposited in Třeboň. The revenue book, the version of 1677, is a part of it. Besides that there are the Cadastres of 1713 – 1785, the statutory labour lists of 1677, the land registers per mayorates, from 1589 (which is something miraculous), urbaries since 1517 etc. So, there is an enormous range of archival material, moreover beautifully shown in several registers.
FČ: In Roots we follow up the names and lives of the families of South Bohemian origin. During which period do the oldest names of the Zahorian settlers come from?
AS: A document of 1521 that still exists, reads that someone named Hronek has sold to Říha Hynouš of Záhoří, his Třeštíkovský court in Krč. It is interesting that this court was vassalic (of or relating to a vassal). Interesting for a genealogist is surely the Urbary of the estates of Kestřany and Červený Újezdec of 1621, stating the names and taxation of the Zahorians. This urbary was rewritten in 1652 and the new farmer’s names have been inserted therein. We shall now have a look at the inhabitation of Záhoří in the middle of the 17th century, when the Dominion of Červený Újezdec was in the hands of count Linhart Oldřich of Harrach, a cousin of the archbishop of Prague. This gentleman managed the estate on behalf of his underaged sister-in-law. In Horní Záhoří the following farmers were active at that time: Jan Sýkora and Oldřich Bohatej, and five cottagers: Švec, Hašek, Matoušek, Krejčí and Kovář. The largest farm belonged to Bohatej, covering 62 strychs of fields, i.e.some 155 acres. This was the farm with the later registration number eight. There were ten farmers in Dolní Záhoří, out of which Hynouš, Kuba and Bártů had the status of...trade. The further farmers were: Bartoloměj Brož, Matěj Pekař, Ondřej Jun, Ondřej Vítů, Jan Maruna and Zuzana Králíková.
FČ: In 1680 the plague, or the “Black Death“, came to all of Bohemia. What was the impact in Záhoří?
AS: In the rectory of Záhoří, 161 people died during that time. The urbary of the Dominion of Orlík, Zvíkov and Červený Újezdec comes from this time, the period of 1682 to 1695. It is a fantastic source of information for the genealogists. It contains in the notes the sequence of land holders in the individual farms.
FČ: What did Záhoří u Písku look like in the light of this Eggenberger Urbary?
AS: The village named as Záhoří is only found at the end of this urbary as a part of the Újezdec´Dominion. These farmers were active there: Jakub Vituj, and after him Jan Vituj; Kateřina Bohatá, and after her Václav Bohatej. Within 1683 – 1685 the farm is stated as abandoned. Since 1686 the new farmer is registered in the urbary, Řehoř Souhrada. This man came from the neighbouring village of Jamný. The neighbouring court belonged to Jan on Koubov and after him Matěj Kuba. The farm of Václav Hynouš is registered until 1684 as being vacant and then Vít arrived. The next owner is registered in the urbary as Šimon Král, with an explanation that this man is in fact Sýkora, Jr. After him came Pavel Král byl who was active on this piece of land. The neighbouring farm was owned by Martin Hašek and after him Matěj Hašek. Another farm was posessed by Bárta on Hynoušov, reportedly held by Jun Jr., and followed by Jiřík Bártík. Matouš on the Marunas farm was followed by Kryštof Maruna, and Bartoň was followed by Václav Brož. There was the farm of Matěj Pekař, followed by Jiřík Pekař, then farms for Bláha Švec and Ondřej Jun substituted in the farming by Jarolím Jun. In total, there were 12 farms by the end of the 17th century.
FČ: Can you give us an idea how much taxes the farmers had to pay during that time? Can you give us some farms as an example?
AS: For instance Jakub Vituj lLater the registration number 5) paid an anuity on St. George´s day (24th April) of 61 groshes, and again the same on the day of St.Havel (16th October), plus 45 groshes covering 15 hens. The local farmers apparently enjoyed a good financial status, as besides their names there are notes confirming that all payments have been completely settled. On the basis of their payments it is evident that the Vitujs and Hynoušes farms were the biggest ones, and the other farmers paid half as much as they did. The Šveces and Juns had cottages only listed.
FČ: If we skip 100 years ahead in our journey, we come to the end of the 18th century. Who was active in business in Dolní Záhoří at that time?
AS: As we already know, the emperor Josef II had the new Cadastre completed, and named after him Josefský. The forests, ponds and the large areas were measured by the official surveyor; the other units were measured and evaluated by the local mayor, together with one or two older local citizens. They had measured the lengths and widths and calculated the area. This measurement, needless to say, was only approximate, but in spite of this fact the authorities took the figures into consideration until the new official measurement was carried out from 1852 to 1853. If we consult the Josefský Cadastre covering Dolní Záhoří u Písku, we can see that the largest building was reg. No.5 of Jiří Vituj, at 90 acres of fields and 10 acres of meadows belonging thereto. This farm was followed by reg. No. 8 of Václav Hynouš, with 83.75 acres of fields and 12.5 acres of meadows. The third largest was reg. No. 9 of Tomáš Králíček, with “only“ about 73 acres of fields.
FČ: Could you please explain to our listeners what the “Joch and Wiener sixfeet“ refer to?
AS: The Austrian Joch was about 1.25 acres or what was equal to 2 strychs. The Wiener sixfeet covered about 3.5 square metres. The larger farms in 1785 in Dolní Záhoří were as follows: Reg. No. 12 (Václav Hašek, at 41.25 acres of fields), reg. No. 13 (Jan Bartík, who had 42.50 acres of fields), reg.no. 15 (Pavel Maruna, at 41.25 acres of fields) and reg. No. 17 (Pavel Brož, who also had 41.25 acres of fields). Josef Pekař under reg. No. 18 had some 40 acres of fields as well as Ignác Jun (reg. No. 26). Jan Souhrada in reg. No. 1 had only 15 acres of fields. The absolutely smallest land areas were in the hands of Kateřina Pechušková in No. 2, Václav Hubička in No. 3, Matěj Povolný in No. 4 and Karel Souhrada in No. 7, i.e. each having between 3.75 and 6.25 acres of fields. The above mentioned family of Pechuška in reg.no. 2 came to Dolní Záhoří in 1711, when Martin Pechuška of Tukleky by Písek married the daughter of Matyáš Švec. I would like to stress here that the family names of the owners are stated per “roof“ [this is an old tradition in the German speaking countries – translator´s note]. One year was to pass until the permanent and non-changeable family names became a law (in 1786). As an example, in Reg.No. 8 lived the gentleman named Václav Souhrada, whereas the Josefinian Cadastre states per domicile – the name of Hynouš.
FČ: Could you please describe the story of some of the farms in Horní Záhoří?
AS: I would like to utilize an excellent manuscript of the director – teacher Josef Koch, entitled “The memorial book of the village Záhoří“ of 1931. There is a chapter called “The sequence of the owners of the individual farms.“ The farm Reg. No. 8 in Horní Záhoří is described as one of the biggest farms in the rectorial village and the holders were from long ago and named “Bohatý“ [meaning Rich – translator´s not]. The rectorial chronicle states that this farm was obliged to provide the rectory with statutory labour for 12 days in the summer, and on the feastday of St. Havel (See above) to pay 180 groshes to the priest. The taxation list states in 1653 a man by the name of Ondřej Bohatý. In 1686 Řehoř Souhrada, (born 1655 in Jamný,) comes to this farm. He was named Kovař a Bohatý (meaning Smith per craft and Rich per roof, translator’s note). He was followed by his son Jiřík Kovář or Souhrada, and the farm of his has was evaluated at 791 sixties of groshes of Meissen, so the price of it was enormously high, like a dominion. In 1718 the farm was registered to his son Jan Souhrada and after him, in 1756, on his son Řehoř Souhrada, for the price of 500 sixties. In 1787 his son Martin Souhrada became the owner of this farm, together with his wife Rosalie. Their son, Martin 2nd, got the cottage in Dolní Záhoří, Reg. No. 7. The farmer Martin Souhrada died inPrague in May, 1812. His daughter Catherine married Šejharová, who was a miller at the Honsovský Mill. Martins underaged son, František Souhrada, was named as the the inheritor. Instead he became the miller at Srlín and then sold the farm along with the cottage No.9 to Matěj Souhrada, who was a master baker and pub owner in Záhoří, for the price of 2200 Guldens. After he died, the farm was registered to the second husband of his widow Josefa, and his wife Maria, born Němejcová. The family of Košťál has lived here ever since. The family of Souhrada lived therefore in Záhoří in several properties, and in fact, the village was at that time a “Souhrada city“. Many members of this family left for the United States of America within the second half of the 19th century.
Land Records, Kept for Tax Purposes by the State
(Kadastry) / *Cadastre
**Utraquism: defined as the doctrines and practices of the Calixtins, a Hussite group demanding communion in both wafer and wine. — Utraquist, n. — Utraquistic, adj.
Sattelite view of the Zahori area >> http://www.maplandia.com/czech-republic/jihocesky-kraj/pisek/jamny/